THE MENACE AND MITIGATION OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT:A REVIEW
Keywords:air, health, fossil fuels, emissions
Air pollution has become one of the leading causes of death globally. This paper investigates the causes as well as sources of air pollution in the indoor and outdoor environment. It identifies anthropogenic activities related such as transportation and other activities involving the combustion of fossil fuel as the major causes of air pollution. The several and diverse health implications of air pollution were highlighted. The dangerous nature of carbon monoxide was x-rayed and the common indoor and outdoor sources were discussed. The risks of carbon monoxide poisoning from generator fumes and vehicle exhaust were clearly enumerated. Particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and ultra fine PM) were clearly shown to be the major casue of chronic and fatal respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Indoor air quality, which is usually overlooked was brought to the fore and shown to be worse than outdoor air quaility in some cases, especially where ventilation is poor. The inextricable link between air pollution and climate change was also established. Mitigative measure such as policies/acts, replacement of fossil fuel with solar PVs, replacement of conventional vehicles with electric vehicles and establishment of urban forests were discussed. Frequent and evenly distributed air quality monitoring, especially using android-enabled portable devices was broached. Besides, policies and other global approaches, individuals must adopt personal protective measures to protect themselves from the menace of air pollution.
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