OPTIMAL DESIGN ANALYSIS OF SUBSTATION GROUND GRID MESH

Authors

  • Abraham Akhikpemelo Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Maritime Academy of Nigeria, Oron, Nigeria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v42i2.16

Keywords:

ETAP, Finite element Method, IEEE Std. 80-2000, ground grid system, Max. Fault Current

Abstract

Substations are grounded by means of earth-embedded electrodes in order to provide safety during normal or fault conditions. Electric substations are effectively grounded to guarantee the proper operation of electrical devices, minimize the likelihood of flash-over during transient conditions as well as dispel lightning strokes. A structure is termed grounded if it is electrically bonded to earth-embedded metallic frames. The earth-embedded metallic frames provide a conducting pathway of electricity to the earth and it is called a ground grid system. Substation ground grid mesh is comprised of vertical and horizontal conductors as well as vertical rods buried beneath the substation ground. Electric current flow through the human body is hazardous. Therefore, ground grid systems should be designed such that the likely electric body current in an operator or passer-by should not exceed the standard defined limits under any foreseeable harmful circumstances and as well provide protection of equipment. The objective of this study is to determine substation, safe ground grid system parameters as well as the cost-effectiveness of designing substation ground grids by comparing the IEEE Std. 80-2000/2013 and the Finite Element Method (FEM). ETAP 16.0 Power Tool is employed in carrying out this analysis. The substation expected maximum short circuit current is stated. The design analysis using both methods is presented separately and suggestions are made with reference to the most cost effective and safest method for the effective designing of the substation ground grid system.

References

Sakis Meliopoulos, A. P. “Power System grounding and Transient: An Introduction”, Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, 1988.

Vyas, K. A., and Jamnani, J. G. "Optimal Design and Development of Software for Design of Substation Grounding System", Nirma University, International Conference on Engineering, 2011, pp. 1-7.

Anggoro, B., Utami, R. S., and Handayani, L. "Optimal Design of Grounding System Substation, Case Study: 275/150kV Sigli Substation", 2nd International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Power Systems (ICHVEPS), 2019, pp. 1-6.

Aslam, M. U., Cheema, M. U., Cheema, M. B., and Samran, M. "Design Analysis and Optimization of Ground Grid Mesh of Extra High Voltage Substation Using an Intelligent Software", The 1st International Conference on Information Technology, Computer, and Electrical Engineering, 2014, pp. 339-345.

Ghods, A., Lee, H., and Etemadi, A. "Optimal Design of Grounding Systems for High Voltage Substations," IEEE PES General Meeting Conference and Exposition, 2014, pp. 1-5

Malanda, S. C., Davidson, I. E., Buraimoh, E. and Singh, E. "Analysis of Soil Resistivity and its Impact on Grounding Systems Design", IEEE PES/IAS Power Africa, 2018, pp. 324-329.

Lamrent, P. "General Fundamentals of Electrical Grounding Techniques", Le Bulletin de Las Societe Francaise des Electriciens, Vol. 1, 1951, pp 368-402.

Sverak, J. G. "Simplified Analysis of Electrical Gradients above a Ground Grid-I How Good is The Present IEEE Method? (A Special Report for WG 78.1)", IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-103, Number 1, 1984, pp. 7-25.

Schwarz, S. J. "Analytical Expressions for the Resistance of Grounding Systems", Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Part III: Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 73, Number 2, 1954, pp. 1011-1016.

"IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding," IEEE Std. 80-2013 (Revision of IEEE Std. 80-2000), 2015, pp.1-226.

Uma, U. U., Uzoechi, L. O., and Robert, B. J. “Optimization Design of Ground Grid Mesh of 132/33kv Substation Using ETAP”, Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), Vol. 32, Number 4, 2016, pp. 926-934.

Md. Shawkat, H., Raju, A., and Shahzad, H. “Design and Optimization of Substation Grounding Grid for Ensuring the Safety of Personnel and Equipment”, Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 5, Number 1, 2021, pp. 71-80.

Saeid, G. F., Tahir, K., Abdul, W., Chang-Hwan, K., Kumail, H. K., Kyu-Ho, K., Namhun, C., and Sang-Bong, R. “Investigation and Optimization of Grounding Grid Based on Lightning Response by Using ATP-EMTP and Genetic Algorithm”, Complexity, Vol. 2018, pp. 1-8.

Navinesshani, P., Miszaina, O., Azrul, M. A., Navaamsini, B., and Ab Mohd, Z. A. K. “Optimization of Substation Grounding Grid Design for Horizontal and Vertical Multilayer and Uniform Soil Condition Using Simulated Annealing Method”, PLOS ONE, Vol. 16, Number 9, 2021, pp. 1-16.

Downloads

Published

2023-07-31

Issue

Section

Computer, Telecommunications, Software, Electrical & Electronics Engineering

How to Cite

OPTIMAL DESIGN ANALYSIS OF SUBSTATION GROUND GRID MESH. (2023). Nigerian Journal of Technology, 42(2), 274-281. https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v42i2.16