INCORPORATING GRAIN DETECTION AND SPEED CONTROL MECHANISMS IN HAMMER MILL OPERATIONS
Keywords:Hammer mill, motor speeds, Colour sensor, particle size
The traditional way of achieving different grain particle sizes in hammer mills is by manually changing the screen to the desired size. This manual process is a production procedure that is time-consuming, demanding, and resource-draining. This study incorporated a grain identification and speed control mechanism into a hammer mill machine. The grain detection mechanism is a system that recognizes a grain type through an RGB (Red, Green, Blue) colour sensor. The system has been programmed and trained to vary the speed of a 2hp electric motor with a maximum speed of 2800rpm based on the colour-matching result obtained when the grain is scanned on the colour sensor. The machine was evaluated using performance parameters such as power consumption and grain sieve analysis of milled grains using three crops (yellow corn, white corn, and cowpea). The Three crops were programmed for milling at three motor speeds (2800rpm, 2200rpm, and 1800rpm), and the result is presented. This paper showed that fine, medium and coarse aggregates were obtained for all three-grain types by varying motor speeds, eliminating the need to manually change the screen. The system was responsive to grain identification and speed selection as programmed.
Dhanashri, U. B., Ramdas, V. K., Avinash, A. H., and Sawant, S. S. “Half Sieve Hammer Mill Machine”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS), vol. 10, no. 5, pp.28-31, 2023. https://dx.doi.or g/10.22161/ijaers.105.3
Mugabi, R., Byaruhanga, Y. B., Eskridge, K. M., and Weller, C. L. “Performance evaluation of a hammer mill during grinding of maize grains”, Agricultural Engineering Internation-al: CIGR Journal, vol. 21, no. 2, pp.170-179, 2019. http://www.cigrjournal.org
Basiouny, M. A. and El-Yamani, A. E. “Performance Evaluation Of Two Different Hammer Mills For Grinding Corn Cobs”, Journal of Soil Sciences and Agricultural Engineering, vol. 7, no. 1, pp.77- 87, 2016.
Mariam A. A., El‑Sayed A., Ali, E., and Victor, M. D. “Modified and improved performance of local hammermill for mushroom residues chopping”, Bulletin of the National Research Centre, Vol. 46, no. 228, pp.1-9, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00920-y
Joseph, B. B., Isaac, F. O., and Joshua, A. O. “A Comparative Technique for Performance Evaluation of Hammer Mill and Disk Mill in Yam Flour Processing”, World Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 10, pp.613-625, 2022. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.202 2.103040
Ojomo, A. O., and Fawohunre, A. J. “Development of a Hammer Mill with Double Sieving Screens”, EJERS, European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, vol. 5, no. 5, pp.617-621, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.240 18/ejers.2020.5.5.1763
Scholten, R., and McEllhiney, R. “The effects of prebreaking in hammer mill particle size reduction”, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, pp. 85-3542, 1985.
Hall, C., and Davis, D. “Processing Equipment for Agricultural Products”, The AVI Publishing Company, Inc., 1979.
Lopo, P. “The right grinding solution for you: roll, horizontal or vertical. Feed Management”, American Journal of Food science and Technology, pp. 53(3):23-26., 2002.
Buffalo, S. “Introduction to size reduction,” 2002. [Online]. Available: www.hammermil l.com. [Accessed 17 January 2023].
Ezurike, B. O., Osazuwa, O. J., Okoronkwo, C. A., and Okoji, K. I. “Design, construction and performance evaluation of a flat screen hammer mill machine” African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, vol. 10, no. 6, pp.683-690, 2018. https://doi.org/1 0.1080/20421338.2018.1491675
Oluwole, F. A., Gujja, A., and Abubakar, A. K. “Effect of Number of Beaters on the Performance of Household Hammer Mill. Arid Zone”, Journal of Engineering, Technology & Environment, Vol. 15, no. 3, pp.619-627, 2019. www.azojete.com.ng
Justine, O. B., Mustapha, M., and Mukhtar, D. H. “Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Direct Drive Electric Powered Hammer Mill Machine”, FUOYE Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 7, no. 2, pp.200-204, 2022. http://doi.org/10.46792/fuoyejet.v7i2.794
Martin, S. “The effect of particle size on mixing and pelleting quality”, Proceedings of The First International Symp. on Particle Size Reduction in the feed, Manhattan, U.S.A, 1983.
Hegazy, K. E. S, Mosa, M., El-Ashhab, A., Magda, M., and Hemeda, B. “Preparation and conversion of eggshell as hatchery by-product wastes to produce untraditional poultry”, Misr Journal of Agricultural Engineering, Vol. 19, no. 2, pp.958- 972, 2002.
Alhaji, G., Bawu, B. M., Grema, L. U., Ndriza, Y. M., and Bunu, M. “Design, Modification and Performance Evaluation of Household Hammer Mill”, International Journal of Information, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, no. 5, pp.95-103, 2021.
Mani, S., Tabil, L., and Sokhansanj, S. “Grinding Performance and Physical Properties of Selected Biomass”, St. Joseph: American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 27, no. 4, pp.339-352, 2004.
Hassan, M. “Modifying and evaluation of a small locally made mixmilling unit suitable for egyptain poultry farms”, Misr Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 569 -584, 1994.
Desta, M. A., and Oumer, A. “Design and Performance Evaluation of Grain Feed Grinding Machine”, Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp.231-244, 2022. https://doi.org/10.46592/t u rkager.1144063
Oyelami, A. T. and Shoge, S. A. “Low-Cost Automated Poultry Feeding System Using Atmega328 Microcontroller”, International Journal of Basic Science and Technology, Vol. 8, no. 3, pp.251-257, 2022. https://doi.org/10.5 555/RFPY5777
Opadotun, O. O, Oladipo, N. O, Okoro, O. N and Oriola, K. O. “Effects of Operating Speed and Screen Diameters on the Efficiency of a Hammer Mill”, Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (JAET), Vol. 23, no. 2, pp.9-18, 2017.
Workalemahu, M., Beruk, H., and Ashokkumar, T. “Redesign and Fabrication of Hammer Milling Machine for Making Pasta”, International Journal of ChemTech Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp.202-218, 2019. http://dx.doi.o rg/10.20902/IJCTR.2019.120327
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Technology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The contents of the articles are the sole opinion of the author(s) and not of NIJOTECH.
NIJOTECH allows open access for distribution of the published articles in any media so long as whole (not part) of articles are distributed.
A copyright and statement of originality documents will need to be filled out clearly and signed prior to publication of an accepted article. The Copyright form can be downloaded from http://nijotech.com/downloads/COPYRIGHT%20FORM.pdf while the Statement of Originality is in http://nijotech.com/downloads/Statement%20of%20Originality.pdf
For articles that were developed from funded research, a clear acknowledgement of such support should be mentioned in the article with relevant references. Authors are expected to provide complete information on the sponsorship and intellectual property rights of the article together with all exceptions.
It is forbidden to publish the same research report in more than one journal.