EFFECTS OF SODIUM CARBONATE ADMIXTURE AND MIX DESIGN RATIOS ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE

Authors

  • Andrew O. T. Federal University of Technology, Akure
  • Omotayo O. O. Federal University of Technology, Akure
  • Arum C. Federal University of Technology, Akure
  • Ikumapayi C. M. Federal University of Technology, Akure

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v42i2.4

Keywords:

Sodium carbonate, Accelerator, Compressive strength, Mix ratio, Setting time

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the impact of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) admixture on the acceleration and long-term compressive strength of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete at different mix ratios. Concrete cube specimens (150 × 150 × 150mm3 size) were cast at three different mix ratios (1:1.5:3, 1:2:4, and 1:3:6) with sodium carbonate admixture added in increasing dosage of 0.5% from 0 to 2.0% by weight of OPC. Compressive strength tests were conducted on the cast specimens after curing under water for 7, 28, 56 and 90days. Additionally, tests were done to see how sodium carbonate would accelerate setting times of OPC paste. The results of the tests showed that Na2CO3 decreased the initial and final setting times of cement paste from 96 to 67mins and 543 to 387mins respectively. Compressive strength test results for 1:2:4 and 1:3:6 mix ratios showed an increasing trend up to 1.0% Na2CO3 admixture, after which there was a decrease. Meanwhile, 1:1.5:3 mix ratio showed a decrease in strength from 21.87 N/mm2 at 0% to 14.90 N/mm2 at 1.0% Na2CO3 addition, after which the strength increased with Na2CO3 percent addition. These results suggest that sodium carbonate has an accelerating effect on concrete setting time, and may aid its early strength development, but has negative long-term effects on concrete strength with increasing dosage. An optimal percentage of 1% Na2CO3 by weight of OPC is advised for accelerating effects in concrete, based on the results of this study.

References

Collepardi, M. “Admixtures: Enhancing concrete performance,” in Admixtures-Enhancing Concrete Performance: Proceedings of the International Conference held at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK on 6 July 2005, 2005, pp. 217–230.

ASTM C494, “ASTM C494: Standard specification for chemical admixtures for concrete,” 2005.

Khan, S. U., Nuruddin, M. F., Ayub, T., and Shafiq, N. “Effects of different mineral admixtures on the properties of fresh concrete,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, 2014.

Myrdal, R. “Accelerating admixtures for concrete. State of the art,” 2007.

Wang, Y., He, F., Wang, J., and Hu, Q. “Comparison of effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate on the hydration and properties of Portland cement paste,” Materials, vol. 12, no. 7, p. 1033, 2019.

Umoh, A. A., and Ujene, A. O. “Improving the strength performance of high volume periwinkle shell ash blended cement concrete with sodium nitrate as accelerator,” Journal of Civil Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 18–22, 2015.

Kičaitė, A., Pundienė, I., and Skripkiūnas, G. “The influence of calcium nitrate on setting and hardening rate of Portland cement concrete at different temperatures,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, vol. 251, no. 1, p. 012017.

Zhang, T., Ma, B., Tan, H., Qi, H., and Shi, T. “Effect of sodium carbonate and sodium phosphate on hydration of cement paste,” Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 45, p. 103577, 2022.

Abdalqader, A. F., Jin, F., and Al-Tabbaa, A. “Development of greener alkali-activated cement: utilisation of sodium carbonate for activating slag and fly ash mixtures,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 113, pp. 66–75, 2016.

Choi, H., et al., “Physicochemical study on the strength development characteristics of cold weather concrete using a nitrite–nitrate based accelerator,” Materials, vol. 12, no. 17, p. 2706, 2019.

Gao, X., Yao, X., Yang, T., Zhou, S., Wei, H., and Zhang, Z. “Calcium carbide residue as auxiliary activator for one-part sodium carbonate-activated slag cements: Compressive strength, phase assemblage and environmental benefits,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 308, p. 125015, 2021.

Camiletti, J., Soliman, A. M., and Nehdi, M. L. “Effect of nano-calcium carbonate on early-age properties of ultra-high-performance concrete,” Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 297–307, 2013.

Li, G., Tan, H., Zhang, J., Deng, X., Liu, X., and Luo, Z. “Ground granulated blast-furnace slag/fly ash blends activated by sodium carbonate at ambient temperature,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 291, p. 123378, 2021.

BS 812-112, “Testing aggregates — Part 112: Methods for determination of aggregate impact value (AIV).” British Standard, UK, 1990.

BS 812-110, “Testing aggregates — Part 110: Methods for determination of aggregate crushing value (ACV).” British Standard, UK, 1990.

BS 812-103, “Testing aggregates — Part 103: Methods for determination of particle size distribution.” British Standard, UK, 1990.

BS 812-109, “Testing aggregates — Part 109: Methods for determination of moisture content.” British Standard, UK, 1990.

BS 812-2, “Testing aggregates — Part 2: Methods of determination of density.” British Standard, UK, 1995.

BS EN 196-6, “Methods of testing cement - Part 6: Determination of fineness.” British Standard, UK, 2018.

BS EN 196-3, “Methods of testing cement - Part 3: Determination of setting time and soundness.” British Standard, UK, 2016.

BS EN 12350-2, “Testing fresh concrete — Part 2: Slump test.” British Standard, UK, 2016.

BS 1881-103, “Testing concrete — Part 103: Method for determination of compacting factor.” British Standard, UK, 1993.

BS EN 12390-3, “Testing hardened concrete. Compressive strength of test specimens.” British Standard, UK, 2019.

Coppola, L., Coffetti, D., Crotti, E., Dell’Aversano, R., Gazzaniga, G., and Pastore, T. “Influence of lithium carbonate and sodium carbonate on physical and elastic properties and on carbonation resistance of calcium sulphoaluminate-based mortars,” Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 176, 2019.

Downloads

Published

2023-07-31

Issue

Section

Building, Civil & Geotechnical Engineering

How to Cite

EFFECTS OF SODIUM CARBONATE ADMIXTURE AND MIX DESIGN RATIOS ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE. (2023). Nigerian Journal of Technology, 42(2), 185-190. https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v42i2.4