• A. A. Daniyan Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ-ersity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • T. J. Ayodele Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ-ersity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • A. A. Adeleke Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ-ersity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • O. O. Ola-Omole Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal Unive-rsity of Technology, Akure, Nigeria




Optimization, Leaching, Copper ore, Extraction, Sulpheric acid, Gangues, Response surface methodology, Dissolution, Concentration, Temperature, Time, Deposit, Interaction effect


The optimization of recovery of copper from Akiri hematite-dominated copper ore using hydrometallurgy was investigated in  this study. The Akiri copper  ore deposit hosts a high-grade copper mineral from which copper metal can be extracted. However, the ore is dominated by gangue minerals that need to be mechanically reduced for efficient copper recovery. The purpose of this study is to optimize the extraction of the metal from hematite-dominated copper ore. The experiments that were carried out in the course of this study include crushing, pulverization,mineralogical and chemical characterizations of the sample and sulpheric acid leaching. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the system parameters namely;temperature, concentration of the leachant and contact time so that an efficient method will be developed for the extraction of copper.Chalcopyrite, covellite and cuprite are the copper minerals while the gangues minerals were quartz ,mica, hematite,etc.on the characterization of the copper ore. The major oxides in the ore are hematite ,copper oxide and silica and revealed that the ore contains 4.61% copper and 65.8% iron. Effect of three independent factors like concentration ,temperature and contact time for copper extraction from the hematite-dominated copper ore was studied.Central composite design method was applied to the proposed quadratic model that connect the factors used for best copper extraction at the best process condition. The work shows that concentration of the acid was the best efficient  factor for  copper  extraction compare  to temperature and contact  time. This may be as a result of high value of F-statistics for the concentration of the leachant, which effects to high level of copper extraction.Experimental and predicted values for weight loss from the copper ore were obtained as  39.10% and 39.03% at optimum conditions, respectively. The  optimum conditions of 1.5M acid concentration, 90oC reaction temperature and 90minutes contact time were obtained and from which 6.64%Cu at  recovery of 92.0% and 2.31%Fe was  obtained without stirring. Also, the ore was subjected to leaching with stirring at 400rpm with the optimum  conditions obtained to know the effect. The grade obtained was  7.84%Cu at recovery of 83.51% and iron content 5.47%. This shows that leaching without stirring is the best  option against leaching with stirring to extract the copper and to reduce the  iron and  other  gangues contents in the copper ore.The activation energies were estimated as 13.20kJ/mol and 22.67kJ/mol for liquid film diffusion and diffusion product layer respectively, the values indicate  that the leaching rate is controlled by  diffusion process.


British Geological Survey (BGS). “Copperpro-file”, www.mineralsuk.com

Stan, E. “How to starts Exporting copper ore minerals from Nigeria to International buyers”, Copper ore minerals suppliers, 2018.

Bamidele, E., Ajayi, J. A, and Elizabeth, M. 10th Int'l conference on Advances in Science, Engineering, Technology and Health care (ASETH-18). CapeTown(SouthAfrica)2018.

Watling, H. “The bioleaching of sulphide minerals with emphasis non-copper sulphides - A review”, Hydrometallurgy, 2006; 84:81-108.

De Lemos, L. R., Santos, I. J. B., Rodrigues, G., daSilva, L. H. M., and daSilva, M. C. H. “Copper recovery from ore by liquid – liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase system”, Journal of hazardous materials, 2012; 237-238, 209-214.

Zhang, M., Zhu, G., Zhao, Y., and Feng, X. “A study of recovery of copper and cobalt from copper – cobalt oxide ores by ammonium salt roasting”, Hydrometallurgy, 2012; 129-130, 140-144.

Grozdanka, D. B., Velizar, D. S., Maja, S. T., Dejan, V. A., and Milan, Ž. T. “Leaching of low - grade copper ores: a case study for krakubugaresku – cement acija deposits (eastern serbia)”, Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, 2016; 52(1), 45–56.

Habashi, F. “Hand book of Extractive Metallurgy”, Wiley, New York, 1997.

Akretche, D. E., Kara, S. S., and Kerdjoud, J. H. “Selective leaching of a polymetallic complex ore by sulphuric acid and thiourea mixed with sea water”, Hydrometallurgy, 1995; 38, 189-204.

Droppert, D. J., and Shang, Y. “The leaching behavior of nickeliferouspyrrhotite concentra-tes in hot nitric acid”, Hydrometallurgy, 1995; 39, 169-182.

Fugleberg, S., Hutholm, S. E., Rosenback, L., and Holohan, T. “Development of the Hartley platinum leaching process”, Hydrometallurgy, 1995; 9, 1-10.

Habashi, F. “Textbook of Hydrometallurgy”, Métallurgie Extractive, Québec City. 1999; 75.

Reynolds, J. O., Flavelle, I. V., Williams, G. K. Memorial Symp. Ins. Min. 1985; 35.

Folorunsho, I. O., Bale, R. B., and Adekeye, J. I. D. “Origin and characteristics of copper deposits in Akiri, Nasarawa, Nigeria. Department of Geology and Mineral Sciences”, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria Gold schmidt, 2014; 720.

Hochella, M. F. “Atomic structure, micro-topography, composition, and reactivity of mineral surfaces”, Miner. Interface geochemist-try, 2018; 87e132.

Kinnaird, J. A., Bowden, P., Ixer, R. A., and Odling, N. W. A. “Mineralogy, geochemistry and mineralization of the Ririwai complex”, Northern Nigeria Journal Afr Earth Sci; 1985; 3(1e2):185e222.

Sahu, J. N., Acharya, J., and Meikap, B. C. “Response surface modeling and optimization of chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solution using Tamarind wood activated carbon in batch process”, J. Hazard Mater, 2009; 172:818–25.

Alam, M. Z., Muyibi, S. A., and Toramae, J. “Statistical optimization of adsorption processes for removal of 2, 4-dichlorophenol by activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches”, J. Environ Sci., 2007; 19:674–7.

Myers, R. H. “Response surface methodology”, NewYork: Allyn and Bacon; 1971.

Bayati, B., Azizi, A., and Karamoozian, M. “A comprehensive study of the leaching behavior and dissolution kinetics of copper oxide ore in sulfuric acid lixiviants”, Scientia Iranica., 2018; 25, 3, 1412-1422.

Azargohar, R., and Dalai, A. K. “Production of activated carbon from Luscarchar: experiment-tal and modeling studies”, Micropor Mesopor Mater, 2005; 85:219–25.

Montgomery, D. C. “Design and analysis of experiments”, 8thed. New York: John

Wiley and Sons; 2014.

Folorunsho, I. O., Shekwonyadu, I., Ambo, A. I., Okoro, H. K., and Usman, H. O. “Qualitative identification of copper bearing minerals using near Infrared sensors”, Physicochemical Probl. Miner. Process. 2016; 52(2), 620−633.

Bingöl, D., and Canbazoğlu, M. “Dissolution kinetics of malachite in sulphuric Acid”, Hydrometallurgy, 2004; 72:159-165.

Wang, X., Chen, Q., Hu, H., Yin, Z., and Xiao, Z. “Solubility prediction of malachite in Aqueous ammonia calammonium chloride solutions at 25”, Hydrometallurgy; 2009; 99(3), 231-237.

Dreisinger, D. “Hydrometallurgical process development for complex ores and Concentrates”, Hydrometallurgy Conference 2009, Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg. 2009; 187–212.

Jiushuai, D., Shuming, W., Qiong, Y., Dandan, W., and Quanwei, S. “Leaching of malachite using S-sulfosalicylic acid”, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2017.

Yi, S., Su, Y., Qi, B., Su, Z., and Wan, Y. “Application of response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design in optimization; the preparation condition of vinyl triethoxysilane modified silicalite/polydi-methylsiloxane hybrid pervaporation membra-nes”, Sep Purif Technol, 2010; 71: 252–62.

Shaojun, B., Xianyu, F., Chunlong, L., and Shuming, W. “Process improvement and kinetic study on copper leaching from low-grade cuprite ores”, Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process, 2018; 54(2), 300-31030.

Padilla, R., Vega, D., and Ruiz, M. C. Pressure leaching of sulfidized chalcopyrite in Sulfuric acid-oxygen media”, Hydrometallurgy, 2007; 86,80-88

Levenspiel, O. “Chemical Reaction Engineer-ing”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 1999; 38, 4140-4143.

Baba, A. A., and Adekola, F. A. “Hydrometall-urgical processing of a Nigerian sphalerite in hydrochloric acid: Characterization and dissolution kinetics”, Hydrometallurgy, 2010, 101: 69-75.

Seyed, G. S. M., and Azizi, A. “Alkaline leaching of lead and zinc by sodium hydroxide: kinetics Modeling”, Journal Material Resourc-es Technology, 2017, 10(3)5.

Lee, I. H., Wang, Y. J, and Chern, J. M. “Extraction kinetics of heavy metal-containing sludge”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2005, 123: 112-119.

Espiari, S., Rashchi, F., and Sadrnezhaad, S. K. “Hydrometallurgical treatment of tailings with high zinc content”, Hydrometallurgy, 2006, 8254-62.




How to Cite

Daniyan, A. A., Ayodele, T. J., Adeleke, A. A., & Ola-Omole , O. O. (2023). OPTIMIZATION OF LEACHING PARAMETERS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM HEMATITE-DOMINATED COPPER ORE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY (RSM). Nigerian Journal of Technology, 42(3), 353–363. https://doi.org/10.4314/njt.v42i3.8



Chemical, Industrial, Materials, Mechanical, Metallurgical, Petroleum & Production Engineering