• A. A. Daniyan Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ-ersity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • T. J. Ayodele Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ-ersity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • A. A. Adeleke Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ-ersity, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • O. O. Ola-Omole Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal Unive-rsity of Technology, Akure, Nigeria




Optimization, Leaching, Copper ore, Extraction, Sulpheric acid, Gangues, Response surface methodology, Dissolution, Concentration, Temperature, Time, Deposit, Interaction effect


The optimization of recovery of copper from Akiri hematite-dominated copper ore using hydrometallurgy was investigated in  this study. The Akiri copper  ore deposit hosts a high-grade copper mineral from which copper metal can be extracted. However, the ore is dominated by gangue minerals that need to be mechanically reduced for efficient copper recovery. The purpose of this study is to optimize the extraction of the metal from hematite-dominated copper ore. The experiments that were carried out in the course of this study include crushing, pulverization,mineralogical and chemical characterizations of the sample and sulpheric acid leaching. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the system parameters namely;temperature, concentration of the leachant and contact time so that an efficient method will be developed for the extraction of copper.Chalcopyrite, covellite and cuprite are the copper minerals while the gangues minerals were quartz ,mica, hematite,etc.on the characterization of the copper ore. The major oxides in the ore are hematite ,copper oxide and silica and revealed that the ore contains 4.61% copper and 65.8% iron. Effect of three independent factors like concentration ,temperature and contact time for copper extraction from the hematite-dominated copper ore was studied.Central composite design method was applied to the proposed quadratic model that connect the factors used for best copper extraction at the best process condition. The work shows that concentration of the acid was the best efficient  factor for  copper  extraction compare  to temperature and contact  time. This may be as a result of high value of F-statistics for the concentration of the leachant, which effects to high level of copper extraction.Experimental and predicted values for weight loss from the copper ore were obtained as  39.10% and 39.03% at optimum conditions, respectively. The  optimum conditions of 1.5M acid concentration, 90oC reaction temperature and 90minutes contact time were obtained and from which 6.64%Cu at  recovery of 92.0% and 2.31%Fe was  obtained without stirring. Also, the ore was subjected to leaching with stirring at 400rpm with the optimum  conditions obtained to know the effect. The grade obtained was  7.84%Cu at recovery of 83.51% and iron content 5.47%. This shows that leaching without stirring is the best  option against leaching with stirring to extract the copper and to reduce the  iron and  other  gangues contents in the copper ore.The activation energies were estimated as 13.20kJ/mol and 22.67kJ/mol for liquid film diffusion and diffusion product layer respectively, the values indicate  that the leaching rate is controlled by  diffusion process.


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