• J. Garba College of Computing, Informatics, and Media, Universiti Teknologi Mara Malaysia.
  • J. Kaur College of Computing, Informatics, and Media, Universiti Teknologi Mara Malaysia.
  • E. Nuraihan Mior Ibrahim College of Computing, Informatics, and Media, Universiti Teknologi Mara Malaysia.



Cybersecurity culture, Online banking, Human factors, Nigeria, Conceptual model.


This study aims to construct a comprehensive conceptual framework that elucidates the critical human factors influencing cybersecurity culture among online banking users in Nigeria. The research methodology is grounded in a meticulous examination of existing literature in the cybersecurity culture domain, serving as the foundation for this framework. The literature review reveals a conspicuous absence of academic research on cybersecurity culture within Nigeria and underscores the importance of comprehending its unique nuances. Key findings from the literature review highlight the prominence of “cybersecurity awareness,” “cybersecurity policy,” and “cybersecurity education” as influential factors. “Cybersecurity awareness” emerges as the most pivotal factor due to its recurrent emphasis and recognized centrality. “Cybersecurity policy” and “cybersecurity education” secure the second and third positions, respectively, due to their acknowledged significance in cultivating a security-conscious mindset among online banking users. Furthermore, the literature review exposes a research gap concerning the requisite “cybersecurity knowledge” that should permeate organizations and individuals to augment cybersecurity culture. Additionally, it reveals the underexplored influence of “social norms” and “interpersonal trust” in molding cybersecurity culture. This research accentuates the dearth of cybersecurity culture research within Nigeria and underscores the importance of understanding its unique facets. The proposed conceptual framework provides a valuable resource for designing tailored cybersecurity strategies and programs in Nigeria’s online banking sector. It advocates for prioritizing cybersecurity awareness, education, and policy, empowering users with the knowledge and skills needed to safeguard themselves against cyber threats. The model also highlights the relevance of recognizing the role played by social dynamics, interpersonal trust, and social norms in shaping cybersecurity behaviours.


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Computer, Telecommunications, Software, Electrical & Electronics Engineering

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