• C. C. Nnaji University of Nigeria, Nsukka; Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa



Sanitation, toilet, water sources, health, environment


The status of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities was investigated in sixty schools in seven local government areas of Enugu State, Nigeria. A total of sixty schools comprising of twenty-four (24) private schools, twenty (20) government schools and Sixteen (16) mission schools were investigated in this study. Using questionnaire and on-the-spot assessment, WASH facilities in the selected schools were subjected to in-depth scrutiny. The highest number of schools that do not have a water source within the school premises are government schools (10), followed by private schools (7) and then mission schools (2). About seventy-one percent (71%) of the schools investigated rely on self-help water supply sources such as water vendors, rainwater harvesting and private boreholes. Fifty-seven (57) or 95% of the sixty (60) schools of all the schools have toilet facilities ranging from improved pit latrine (10%), flush toilet (31.7%) and pour flush toilet (53.3%). With respect to toilet cleaning, 33%, 17% and 50% of private, government and mission school clean their toilets every day. Fifty-five percent (55%) of all schools always provide handwashing facilities while 13.3% never provide handwashing facilities. Based on school category, the distribution of schools that provide handwashing facilities are as follows: private schools – 54.2%, government schools – 40% and mission schools – 75%. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.85) between availability of toilet facilities and provision of handwashing facilities. There was also a significant correlation (r = 0.555) between the provision of handwashing facilities and the provision of soap.

Author Biography

  • C. C. Nnaji, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, South Africa




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Agricultural, Bioresources, Biomedical, Food, Environmental & Water Resources Engineering

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