• A. S. Alademomi Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • O. A. Jimoh Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • E. E. Atojunere Department of Soil Science and Biosystems Engineering, Fiji National University, Fiji Islands, Oceania
  • A. O. Alabi Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • S. A. Ishola Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • I. V. Ayantayo-Ojo Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • T. J. Salami Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • J. O. Odumosu Department of Surveying and Geoinformatics, Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Nigeria




Deformation monitoring, Building, Stereophotogrammetry, Kalman filter


This research investigates building deformation monitoring using stereophotogrammetry and integrating the Kalman filter to refine the result with conventional geodetic measurements being the baseline. By refining stereophotogrammetric coordinates with the Kalman filter, the study aims to improve measurement precision in the detection of displacement which is a measure of differences in converted stereo-coordinates obtained from the observed points over time. The refined coordinates exhibited higher accuracy compared to raw stereophotogrammetric measurements, highlighting the effectiveness of the proposed approach in reducing observational errors and relatively detected and quantified building deformations with an average rate of displacement of 0.025978169 m/epoch in the x-axis, 0.030498323 m/epoch in the y-axis, and 0.014078842 m/epoch in the z-direction, and a range of 0.000155 m/epoch to 0.593497 m/epoch. Points P03 (0.008 m/epoch), PH04 (0.021 m/epoch), and PH22 (0.037 m/epoch) on the monitored building indicated the highest displacement. This research contributes to the field of knowledge in the area of deformation monitoring by offering an innovative methodology for accurate assessment of building deformation. In the overview, this research demonstrates the potential of a simple, efficient, and cost-effective method of monitoring deformation that can ensure the safety and sustainability of engineering structures.


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Building, Civil & Geotechnical Engineering

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