Performance Evaluation of a Compression Ignition Engine using Sand Apple (Parinari polyandra B.) Ethyl ester (Biodiesel)
Keywords:biodiesel, sand apple ethyl-ester, transesterification, calcined eggshell, heterogeneous catalyst, performance evaluation criteria
The quest for non-edible oil for the production of alternative fuel (bio-fuel) using homogeneous catalysts continues to supplement and replace in totality the traditional transportation fuels that are not environmentally friendly. The use of biodiesel in Compression Ignition Engines (CIE) to evaluate the engine performance is a norm and blends of biodiesel and Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) are also used in the engine performance processes to ascertain its usage in the CIE. Therefore, this study evaluated the performance of a compression ignition engine (CIE) fuelled with biodiesel produced from sand apple oil using eggshell as a heterogeneous catalyst. Trans-esterification of Sand Apple Oil (SAO) with ethanol to produce ethyl ester and glycerol was optimized. Sand Apple Ethyl Esters (SAEE) was blended with Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) at 5 -- 25% mix to evaluate the performance of a 3.68 kW diesel engine at five loading conditions (0, 25. 50, 75, 100%). Performance tests were carried out to determine torque, speed, exhaust gas temperature and fuel consumption rate. Data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA at P < 0.05 significant level. Results of parameters tested ranged from 6.50 -- 6.60 Nm, 2795 -- 2950 rpm, 385 -- 400 C and 2.93 -- 5.00 x 10-6 kg/s, respectively for all the blends. The study established that the performance of the diesel engine using 5 -- 25% SAEE-AGO blends was similar to using AGO alone and SAEE is therefore suitable for use in the CIE.
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